The Die is Cast. Julius Caesar was ordered by the Senate to disband his armies and leave them in Northern Italy. On January 10th, 49 B.C., Gaius Julius Caesar uttered one of history’s most famous lines, Iacta alea est (sometimes written alea iacta est), after which he crossed the Rubicon river with his army and set the Roman Civil War in motion. To "cross the Rubicon" means to cross a point of no return. What does cross the Rubicon expression mean? Caesar Crossing the Rubicon is work by artist Jean-Leon Gerome from France, is antique Sculpture for sale. Crossing the Rubicon. Losing his governorship was a slap in the face to Caesar, but returning to Rome as a private citizen was even worse. Caesar’s crossing of the Rubicon In one of the most iconic moments of Caesar’s biography, in 49 B.C.E. Tap to unmute. The Rubicon (Latin: Rubico, Italian: Rubicone pronounced ) is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, just south of Ravenna.It was known as Fiumicino prior to 1933, when it was identified with the ancient river Rubicon, famously crossed by Julius Caesar in 49 BC.. On January 10th, 49 B.C., Gaius Julius Caesar uttered one of history’s most famous lines, Iacta alea est (sometimes written alea iacta est) , after which he crossed the Rubicon river with his army and set the Roman Civil War in motion. The pair were followed by the still-more formidable Pompey and Caesar. What does cross the Rubicon expression mean? He was explicitly ordered not to bring his army across the Rubicon River. In his reflections on the campaign, Caesar later boasted that he had killed a million Gauls, enslaved a million more, and left only the remaining million untouched. How Effective Were Nazi Sabotage and Espionage Missions in Britain? After crossing the Rubicon, Caesar advanced to Ariminum (modern-day Rimini), the first city outside his province. Roman law specified that only the elected magistrates (consuls and praetors) could hold imperium within Italy. This plunged the Roman world into civil war. While Caesar's gamble and campaign toward the heart of Rome would ultimately prove to be successful, crossing the Rubicon would become an idiomatic expression meaning to cross a point of no return. 8 The Rubicon 149. After his term in office had ended and he was ordered to disband his army, Caesar refused to step down. With Nathan Dean Williams, Diana Dimitrova, Marcel Dorian, Jack Ellis. Crossing the Rubicon: Caesar's Decision and the Fate of Rome (English Edition) eBook: Fezzi, Luca: Amazon.de: Kindle-Shop Caesar had been appointed to a governorship over a region that ranged from southern Gaul to Illyricum (but not Italy). I, Gaius Caesar, in spite of such great deeds would have been condemned, had I not sought help from my army (hoc uoluerunt. Shopping. Crossing it was the initial event in Julius Caesar’s takeover of the Roman government. “Crossing the Rubicon” became a popular phrase describing a step that definitely commits a person to a given course of action. Note that Rubicon is capitalized as it is a proper noun, related phrases are crosses the Rubicon, crossed the Rubicon, crossing the Rubicon. What Animals Have Been Taken into the Ranks of the Household Cavalry?  The phrase "crossing the Rubicon" has survived to refer to any individual or group committing itself irrevocably to a risky or revolutionary course of action, similar to the modern phrase "passing the point of no return". 'Crossing the Rubicon' has been a metaphor for an important and irreversible decision ever since Julius Caesar, pictured, took his army over the river from Gaul. With Steve West, Mike Duncan, Aaron Irvin, Amanda Ruggeri. In January 49 BC C. Julius Caesar led a single legion, Legio XIII, south over the Rubicon from Cisalpine Gaul to Italy to make his way to Rome. Learn about Author Central . Caesar's decision for swift action forced Pompey, the consuls and a large part of the Roman Senate to flee Rome in fear. Luca Fezzi (Author) 4.0 out of 5 stars 13 ratings. Furthermore, obeying the commands of a general who did not legally possess imperium was a capital offence. In doing so, he deliberately broke the law on imperium and made armed conflict inevitable. In fact, the foundations of Rome’s unique representative government had been crumbling for more than 50 years before Caesar’s river excursion. With the death of Crassus in 53 BCE. This day in history in 55 B.C.- Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon River and starts a civil war in the Roman Republic. The phrase: “Crossing the Rubicon” refers to when Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon river with a legion on January 10, 49 BC, leading to the Roman Civil War. 10 Caesar's 'Long March' and Pompey's Flight to Brundisium 194. His biography is here; the following fragment is from his Life of Julius Caesar. To do so was treason. The huge, multi-racial and famously fearsome territory of Gaul (modern France) was conquered and subdued in one of the most complete conquests in history. The Crossing of the Rubicon. After Caesar's crossing, the Rubicon was a geographical feature of note until about 42 BC, when Octavian merged the Province of Gallia Cisalpina into Italia and the river ceased to be the extreme northern border of Italy. Before his military exploits in Gaul, Caesar was very much the junior of the two, and only rose to prominence when elected consul in 59 BC. Any promagistrate who entered Italy at the head of his troops forfeited his imperium and was therefore no longer legally allowed to command troops. Copy link. 11 In Caesar's Hands 224 It was reported that Caesar dined with Sallust, Hirtius, Oppius, Lucius Balbus and Sulpicus Rufus on the night after his famous crossing into Italy January 10.. Are you an author? After years of war in Rome and across the provinces on a scale never before seen, Caesar was victorious and ruled supreme in Rome, with Pompey now dead and forgotten.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'historyhit_com-leader-1','ezslot_14',162,'0','0'])); Without any remaining enemies, Caesar was made dictator for life, a move which culminated in his assassination by a group of senators in 44 BC. Definition of cross the Rubicon in the Idioms Dictionary. Part II Rome In Chaos. carotta.de Jordan: Caesar erwäh nt die Üb erschreitun g des R ubikons nicht, er spricht jedoch von den Rekrutierungen de s Pompeius . The Rubicon was part of the northern boundary of the portion of Italy under the direct control of the Roman senate. Directed by Gareth Johnson. According to some authors, he is said to have uttered the phrase "alea iacta est"—the die is cast—as his army marched through the shallow river. Share. But things rapidly started going downhill when Crassus got himself killed by the Parthians in 53 BC. Nov 7, 2018 - Explore William Chandler's board "Crossing the Rubicon " on Pinterest. Courtesy of Victoria and Albert Museum. tantis rebus gestis C. Caesar condemnatus essem nisi ab exercitu auxilium petissem). On 10 January 49 BC, Roman general Julius Caesar defied an ultimatum set to him by the Senate. Caesar has crossed the Alps, his mighty soul Great tumults pondering and the coming shock. When Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, he expressed disrespect to the Roman Senate and started the war against it. The phrase refers to how Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon river and became embroiled in civil war in 49 BCE. Julius Caesar led his legion across the Rubicon river from Cisalpine Gaul to Italy. Why Does the Battle of Thermopylae Matter 2,500 Years On? I think I crossed the Rubicon when I took this management position. Julius Caesar was ordered by the Senate to disband his armies and leave them in Northern Italy. The First Triumvirate worked well initially. On 10 January 49 BC, Roman general Julius Caesar defied an ultimatum set to him by the Senate. There had been many civil wars in the previous century but the one started by Caesar was to change Roman history forever. It was reported that Caesar dined with Sallust, Hirtius, Oppius, Lucius Balbus and Sulpicus Rufus on the night after his famous crossing into Italy January 10. Crossing the Rubicon: Brutal Role Models Influenced Julius Caesar’s Rise to Power. As his term of governorship ended, the Roman Senate ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome. Coordinates: 44°05′35″N 12°23′45″E / 44.093029°N 12.395834°E / 44.093029; 12.395834, January 49 BCE event leading to the Roman Civil War; also used as an idiom to mean a point of no return, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "How Julius Caesar Started a Big War by Crossing a Small Stream", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crossing_the_Rubicon&oldid=991762027, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from May 2015, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 18:14. The tide could not be turned back however. your own Pins on Pinterest To this day, the phrase “to cross the Rubicon” means to undertake an action so decisive that there can be no turning back. Upon Julius Caesar's death, his adopted son Augustus became Rome's first emperor. Alea iacta est ("The die has been cast") is a variation of a Latin phrase (iacta alea est [ˈjakta ˈaːlɛ.a ˈɛst]) attributed by Suetonius to Julius Caesar on January 10, 49 BC, as he led his army across the Rubicon river in Northern Italy.With this step, he entered Italy at the head of his army in defiance of the Senate and began his long civil war against Pompey and the Optimates. He was explicitly ordered not to bring his army across the Rubicon River. Als sich Caesar vor gut 2000 Jahren mit seinem Mitregenten Pompeius verstritt, wurde ihm verboten den Rubikon zu übertreten. Caesar’s adopted son Octavian would complete his father’s work, becoming the first true Roman Emperor as Augustus in 27 BC. In the sight of the Senate, crossing the Rubicon River with his army would be viewed as an act of treason – an insurrection, and according to Roman law, an act of war. See search results for this author. In January, 49 BC, Caesar's opponents in the Senate, led by Lentulus, Cato and Scipio, tried to strip Caesar of his command (provinces and legions) and force him to return to Rome as a private citizen (liable to prosecution). He was explicitly ordered not to bring his army across the Rubicon River. This tiny stream would reveal Caesar's intentions and mark the point of no return. If a general entered Italy in command of an army, both the general and his soldiers became outlaws and were automatically condemned to death. In 50 BCE, the Senate dominated by Pompey the Great ordered Julius Caesar to return to Rome, dissolve his army, and forbade him to run for the second consulate. The decision robbed the Rubicon of its importance, and the name gradually disappeared from the local toponymy. It means a person has definitively committed him or herself to a course of action, and there is no turning back. 12 Significant Ancient Greek and Roman Historians, The Rollright Stones: One of the Greatest Neolithic Sites in Britain. Why You Should Know About Margaret Cavendish. Who Were the Cross-Channel Aviation Pioneers? But Pompey’s response was unexpected: he commanded magistrates and senators to abandon Rome—a city that, until then, had always been defended. In 49 BC, Julius Caesar leads an ambitious campaign to cross the Rubicon river; this would culminate in Rome evolving from Republic to Empire. Make no mistake, we are witnessing a power struggle, one which could easily lead to armed conflict across the United States and perhaps the world. Pompey, the Republic's hope, was left without his main army, which was still in Spain, and his support base was in the eastern provinces. Danach machte er sich zum Alleinherrscher über das römische Reich. Caesar made sure that detailed and partisan accounts of his exploits made it back to Rome, where they made him the darling of the people in a city beset by infighting in his absence. Julius Caesar's crossing the Rubicon river on January 10, 49 BC precipitated the Roman Civil War, which ultimately led to Caesar's becoming dictator and the rise of the imperial era of Rome. Caesar’s crossing of the Rubicon. Julius Caesar was ordered by the Senate to disband his armies and leave them in Northern Italy. When Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BCE, the fate of the Roman Republic had already been sealed. Caesar had been appointed to a governorship over a region that ranged from southern Gaul to Illyricum (but not Italy). 69 'They wanted it so. Crossing the Rubicon: Caesar's Decision and the Fate of Rome Hardcover – January 7, 2020 by Luca Fezzi (Author) › Visit Amazon's Luca Fezzi Page. ‘Caesar Crossing the Rubicon’ was created by Jean-Leon Gerome in Academicism style. Make no mistake, we are witnessing a … Suetonius was a Roman historian and biographer. How Much – If Any – of the Romulus Legend Is True? Tradition dictates that Ariminum’s forum was the scene for Julius Caesar’s famous speech to his soldiers when he uttered the words “alea jacta est”.In Rimini, a monument in Piazza Tre Martiri marks the place where Caesar allegedly harangued his troops. Caesar decided his best bet was to enter Rome ready to fight and crossed the Rubicon with his army in January of 49 B.C. Governors of Roman provinces were appointed promagistrates with imperium (roughly, "right to command") in one or more provinces. Upon crossing the Rubicon, Caesar, according to Plutarch and Suetonius, is supposed to have quoted the Athenian playwright Menander, in Greek, "the die is cast". Generals were thus obliged to disband their armies before entering Italy. Up until crossing the Rubicon, Caesar did have the option of trying diplomacy, though by that point it appeared there would be no peaceful resolution to the disagreements. 7 Winds of Civil War 127. He crossed over the Rubicon river with the 13th Legion, a clear violation of Roman Law, and marched to Rome. These activities were clearly dictated by the desire to diminish the political and military role of Caesar. Courtesy of Victoria and Albert Museum. During the late Roman Republic, the river Rubicon marked the boundary between the Roman province of Cisalpine Gaul to the north-east and Italy proper (controlled directly by Rome and its allies) to the south. Jul 14, 2019 - This Pin was discovered by Räuber Hotzenplotz. The Optimates fled to Greece under the command of Pompey since they were incapable of defending the city of Rome itself against Caesar. BY Andy Green PUBLISHED Oct 18, 2020. share. According to Suetonius, Caesar uttered the famous phrase ālea iacta est ("the die has been cast"). At the war's end, Julius Caesar was declared dictator for life. 4 Caesar, Gaul and Rome 67. the general — under orders from the Roman Senate to disband his armies — made the cold-blooded decision to lead his army across the Rubicon river into Italy. In doing so, he deliberately broke the law on imperium and made armed conflict inevitable. The crossing of a small stream in northern Italy became one of ancient history's most pivotal events. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. The optimates despised Caesar and his conquests (viewing much of his campaigning as unwarranted and illegal) and looked for every opportunity to strip him of his command. In January 49 BC, he crossed the Rubicon River with his army, in violation of sacred Roman law, and begin a civil war. The Senate turned to its proconsul, Pompey the Great, for help. Crossing it was the initial event in Julius Caesar’s takeover of the Roman government. Why [)id Caesar Cross the Rubicon? The Rubicon was part of the northern boundary of the portion of Italy under the direct control of the Roman senate. In the sight of the Senate, crossing the Rubicon River with his army would be viewed as an act of treason – an insurrection, and according to Roman law, an act of war. A new online only channel for history lovers, Roman Navy in Britain: The Classis Britannica with Simon Elliott. Lucan's account of Caesar crossing the Rubicon (1.213–22) is dense with metapoetic allusion. An ancient Roman law forbade any general from crossing the Rubicon River and entering Italy proper with a standing army. Now on the marge of Rubicon, he saw, In face most sorrowful and ghostly guise, His trembling country’s image; huge it seemed Through mists of night obscure; and hoary … The governors then served as generals of the Roman army within the territory they ruled. The phrase: “Crossing the Rubicon” refers to when Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon river with a legion on January 10, 49 BC, leading to the Roman Civil War. He was explicitly ordered not to take his army across the Rubicon river, which was at that time a northern boundary of Italy. In the sight of the Senate, crossing the Rubicon River with his army would be viewed as an act of treason – an insurrection, and according to Roman law, an act of war. Definition of Crossing the Rubicon in the Idioms Dictionary. The Roman Empire started in 31 B.C.E. By Marcus Annaeus Lucanus | 2020-11-09T17:08:45-06:00 February 1st, 2017 | Categories: Civilization, Poetry, Rome, Western Civilization | Caesar has crossed the Alps, his mighty soul Great tumults pondering and the coming shock. Crossing The Rubicon, Literally – Caesar Sparks War In 49 BC. When a regional governor named Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon river in January 49 BC it ignited a civil war in Rome. While Caesar mopped up his remaining foes, Pompey ruled as sole consul – which made him a dictator in all but name. 17.06.2016 - Matthias Frindt hat diesen Pin entdeckt. When the Senate ordered Julius Caesar, conqueror of Gaul, to disband his troops, he instead marched his soldiers across the Rubicon River, in violation of Roman law. These powerful men had little need of the senate, and in 58 BC Caesar used their influence to secure a command in the Alps which, by giving him years of freedom and 20,000 men to command, broke every law of the Senate.eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'historyhit_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_8',143,'0','0'])); Caesar used the following five years to become one of the most brilliant and successful commanders in history. In January of 49 BC, Caesar brought the 13th legion across the river, which the Roman government considered insurrection, treason, and a declaration of war on the Roman Senate. On the north-western side, the border was marked by the river Arno, a much wider and more important waterway, which flows westward from the Apennine Mountains (its source is not far from Rubicon's source) into the Tyrrhenian Sea. caesar crossing the rubicon – Gemälden von Toperfect-Galerie zum Fabrikpreis kaufen, 100% Zufriedenheit garantiert. By doing so, he broke the law on imperium (right to command) and made armed conflict inevitable. Pompey got his legislation through the Senate, Caesar got his consulship in 59 BC and a command in Gaul soon after, and Crassus got… well more money. Caesar Crosses the Rubicon (52 to 49 B.C.E.) He had other ideas. FREAKY - In Theaters November 13 (TV SPOT 3) (HD) Watch later. Upon completing the crossing, he reportedly uttered, "And so the die is cast." He too was a famously brilliant commander, but was now ageing while Caesar’s star was in the ascendancy. With Nathan Dean Williams, Diana Dimitrova, Marcel Dorian, Jack Ellis. This post is also available in: Polish . The bridge at Savignano. Discover (and save!) Caesar's allies in the Senate, especially Mark Anthony, Curio, Cassius and Caelius Rufus, tried to defend their patron, but were threatened with violence. Fully aware of the momentous nature of his decision, Caesar ignored the warning and began to march south on Rome. Exercising imperium when forbidden by the law was a capital offence. The civil war that followed this decision is seen by historians as the inevitable culmination of a movement that had begun decades prior. caesar crossing the rubicon Ölbilder kaufen. Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon was so historically significant that, to this day, there's a common saying for it. cross the Rubicon phrase. Today, the phrase "crossing the Rubicon" is a metaphor that means to pass a point of no return. Today, the meaning of crossing the Rubicon refers to making a challenging decision that can have unpredictable consequences. Look it up now! “ Alea iacta est,” said Caesar: The die is cast. When Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BCE, the fate of the Roman Republic had already been sealed. Plutarch on Caesar's Rubico crossing. In the sight of the Senate, crossing the Rubicon River with his army would be viewed as an act of treason – an insurrection, and according to Roman law, an act of war. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon was so historically significant that, to this day, there's a common saying for it. Since the celebrated general (and major influence on Caesar) Gaius Marius had reformed the Roman legions along more professional lines by paying them himself, soldiers had increasingly owed their loyalty to their generals rather than the more abstract idea of a citizen republic. The river Rubicon was considered to be the dividing line between Italy and the rest of the Empire. When the Senate ordered Julius Caesar, conqueror of Gaul, to disband his troops, he instead marched his soldiers across the Rubicon River, in violation of Roman law. Plutarch of Chaeronea (46-c.122): influential Greek philosopher and author, well known for his biographies and his moral treatises. With this in mind, it is hardly surprising that the proud and ambitious general, who knew that he enjoyed the adulation of the people, decided to cross the river Rubicon with his armies on the 10 January 49 BC.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'historyhit_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_15',144,'0','0'])); The gamble paid off. Part III From The Rubicon To The Surrender of Rome. That war did more than topple the Roman republic and replace it with a Roman empire. Directed by Gareth Johnson. on the banks of the Rubicon, Julius Caesar faced a critical choice. If he brought his veteran armies across the river Rubicon in northern Italy, the Republic would be in a state of civil war. In the ensuing conflict, Caesar became the sole dictator of Rome. Marcus Lucanus: “How swiftly Caesar had surmounted the icy Alps and in his mind conceived immense upheavals, coming war. Jordan: Caesar does not mention the crossing of the Rubicon, however he speaks of the recruitment carried out by Pompeius. In January 49 BC C. Julius Caesar led a single legion, Legio XIII, south over the Rubicon from Cisalpine Gaul to Italy to make his way to Rome. Definitions by the largest Idiom Dictionary. Crossing the Rubicon … Erasmus, however, notes that the more accurate Latin translation of the Greek imperative mood would be "alea iacta esto", let the die be cast. Julius Caesar was ordered by the Senate to disband his armies and leave them in Northern Italy. As dictator, Caesar presided over the end of the Roman Republic and the start of the Roman Empire. Caesar’s risky move in crossing the Rubicon surprised his opponents. Look, if you cheat on this test, you are crossing the Rubicon, man. When crossing the Rubicon, Caesar famously uttered, “The die is cast,” as he knew where this decision would inevitably take him. When Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, he expressed disrespect to the Roman Senate and started the war against it. Quickly taking several northern towns, the news reached Rome by January 17. History Hit brings you the stories that shaped the world through our award winning podcast network and an online history channel. As consul, this ambitious man of a minor noble family allied himself with the great general Pompey and the rich politician Crassus to form the First Triumvirate. Courtesy of Victoria and Albert Museum. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Caesar's hard-won victory over Gaul endears him to the Roman people but leads to a military showdown with the Senate and his former ally, Pompey. Suetonius depicts Caesar as undecided as he approached the river, and attributes the crossing to a supernatural apparition. Definitions by the largest Idiom Dictionary. At the time of writing, the United States is at that cross roads. The Senate turned to its proconsul, Pompey the Great, for help. Pompey and his anti-Caesar friends panicked. You can't take that back. As a result, powerful men became more powerful still by fielding their own private armies, and the last troubled years of the Republic had already seen the Senate’s power crumble in the face of the ambition of Marius, and his rival Sulla. Today, the meaning of crossing the Rubicon refers to making a challenging decision that can have unpredictable consequences. Directed by John Ealer, David O'Neill. In 49 BC, Julius Caesar leads an ambitious campaign to cross the Rubicon river; this would culminate in Rome evolving from Republic to Empire. Cross the rubicon definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. He was explicitly ordered not to bring his army across the Rubicon River. Caesar knew this would happen. When he reached the water of the Little Rubicon, clearly to the leader through the murky night appeared a mighty image of his country in distress, grief in her face, her white hair streaming from her tower-crowned head, with tresses torn and shoulders bare she stood … What does Crossing the Rubicon expression mean? Julius Caesar and the Crossing of the Rubicon, Francesco Granacci, 1494. From it sprang the Roman Empire and the genesis of modern European culture. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Crossing the Rubicon: Caesar… Info. The Senate had never ordered or even authorized Caesar to attack Gaul, but were wary of his popularity and extended his command by another five years when it ended in 53 BC.eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'historyhit_com-box-4','ezslot_16',160,'0','0'])); When Crassus died in 54 BC, the Senate turned to Pompey as the only man strong enough to withstand Caesar, who now controlled huge swathes of land in the north without any senate support. After Caesar spent 51 BC and the better part of 50 BC touring his newly conquered province of Gaul, political chaos was developing back in Rome. Julius Caesar and the Crossing of the Rubicon, Francesco Granacci, 1494. On 7 January the Senate passed the consultum ultimum(declaring a state of emergency) and charged the consuls, praetors, tribunes and proconsuls wi… and lasted until 476 C.E. Caesar decided it was better to fight for victory than accept certain defect. 6 Winner in a Tight Corner 107. In fact, the foundations of Rome’s unique representative government had been crumbling for more than 50 years before Caesar’s river excursion. When Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon, he started a five-year Roman civil war. Julius Caesar's crossing the Rubicon river on January 10, 49 BC precipitated the Roman Civil War, which ultimately led to Caesar's becoming dictator and the rise of the imperial era of Rome. Jealousy and fear, combined with the death of his wife – who was also his Caesar’s daughter – meant that their formal alliance broke down during the latter’s long absence.eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'historyhit_com-banner-1','ezslot_17',161,'0','0'])); In 50 BC, Caesar was ordered to disband his army and return to Rome, where he was banned from running for a second consulship and would be on trial for treason and war crimes following his unlicensed conquests. Mutig und selbstbewusst, setzte er alles auf eine Karte, überschritt den Fluss und besiegte seinen Konkurrenten. Crossing the Rubicon phrase. The world yet lives with the repercussions of the civil war Gaius Julius Caesar precipitated when he led his army across the Rubicon River in 49 BC.